This research looks at which organizational characteristics contribute to opportunities and returns. Education is increasingly focusing on inclusiveness. We want to offer all students opportunities to obtain the diploma at the level that best suits their (cognitive) talents. This means that schools can give students opportunities to follow a higher level of education. But the assumption is that a student who is given the opportunity to follow a higher education level is at the same time at risk of underperforming.
However, some schools are more successful in helping these students to get a diploma than other schools. Schools with a higher percentage of girls, 1- or 2-year ‘bridging’ classes, and schools with a denominational signature are more likely to offer opportunities, while categorical schools with a high percentage of students from high income parents are more likely to focus on achieving returns.
Schools that offer both opportunities and returns are those with a higher percentage of students with a migrant background, a higher percentage of high-income parents, a higher percentage of girls, and a 1- or 2-year ‘bridging’ classes.