Toolkit Additional Schooling

Toolkit Additional Schooling
What does the research say?

Programs during school time are more effective than programs that occur before or after school time. During school time, tutoring programs are particularly effective in the reduction of learning delays with effects of approximately 4 or 5 additional months’ progress. Programs outside of school time can also be effective and can generate about 2 months of additional progress.

Diverse studies show which interventions are most effective in reducing learning deficiencies:
  1. Tutoring programs during school time are most effective in reducing learning delays. A prominent example is 1-to-1 tutoring in which pupils receive individual tutoring. Experienced and trained teachers are not required for success. Nevertheless, volunteers or teaching assistants must teach by a well-structured program and receive intensive training before they commence. In addition, tutoring in small groups can be organized in which small groups of students are taught by one tutor. This form of tutoring is somewhat less effective than 1-to-1 tutoring, but can be evenly effective under certain conditions. Finally, peer tutoring can be implemented in which pupils tutor each other. Surprisingly, this form of tutoring can generate 5 months of additional progress.
  2. Programs outside school time have a modest impact on learning development. Schools can extend regular school time, organize summer schools or summer reading programs, and can introduce homework. Extending school time entails a lengthened school day once or more days a week. This can be done on the class-, group- or individual level. It’s important that school day extensions involve and effective form of teaching and are executed by trained professionals. Furthermore, summer schools can prevent or reduce learning losses. In this form of intervention, a targeted group of students receives a tightly fit learning program that lasts at least one week during the summer holidays. Summer reading programs may also be implemented in which students receive book from their school and adopt reading strategies to enhance learning during summertime. Summer schools are more intense and effective than reading programs. Lastly, students can do homework after school. Parental engagement is important in assuring that homework generates learning gains.
  3. An intervention can only be successful if it meets certain requirements. All extra lesson programs – whether its tutoring, extended school time or a summer school – must adhere to certain conditions in order to be successful: • The content of the extra lesson program is suited for the learning loss or delay of the pupil • The program is of high pedagogical and didactive quality and fits the regular learnings methods that are taught in class • The extra lessons take place on a frequent basis and during a longer period of time • The programs are carried out by well-educated or intensely trained professionals • The group size is not too large.